An important quality criteria in parallelized reactors systems is reactor-to-reactor repeatability. A good repeatability is achieved when reactors loaded with the same catalyst system yield the same results. This means that the test results and the differences (in catalytic performance) measured in parallel reactors are reliable.

The following examples provide an overview of the outstanding precision obtained with the 16-parallel reactors Flowrence® technology.

Below, an example where a commercial feed and 16 loadings of a single commercial catalyst were used to validate system performance in ULSD.

Relative standard variation for 16 reactors loaded with the same ULSD catalyst.

Note the outstanding reactor-to-reactor repeatability for all 16 reactors with the narrow standard deviation of 0.4 °C and 0.1% RSD.

Simply putted, 16 reactors loaded with the same catalyst yield almost exactly the same conversion when operated at the same temperature.

This example also helps to address concerns with catalyst sample homogeneity using small-scale reactors (<1g of catalyst loading).

The next example shows the results for the comparison of 4x ULSD catalysts (loaded in quadruplicate reactors).

Note the precision of the quadruplicate reactors loaded with the same catalyst. The standard deviation around the temperature required to obtain 10 ppm Sulfur is 0.2 – 0.4°C.

Once again, an excellent repeatability is observed for the quadruplicate reactors. Impressive discrimination power: statistically relevant differences in catalytic performance observed.

Lastly, an example with hydrocracking catalysts tested in duplicate reactors. The chart below shows VGO conversion as function of temperature for the same catalyst tested in duplicate reactors.
In this chart, it can be observed an excellent reactor-to-reactor repeatability, where the Net Conversion is within 0.2% for the 4 catalysts tested in duplicate reactors.
All these results clearly show the outstanding repeatability for duplicated reactors in our high-throughput 16-reactors system.
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Flowrence® products specifications

Reactor Section

Easy and quick reactor exchange system. Possibility to use quartz reactors at high pressure.

1 block of 4 reactors

HT = High Temperature max. 800°C nominal, limited to 925°C (<0.5°C reactor to reactor deviation)

4 blocks of 4 reactors

HT  or MT = Medium Temperature max. 525°C (<0.5°C block-to-block deviation)

16 reactors with iRTC

individual Reactor Temperature Control
max. 550°C (<0.5°C reactor-to-reactor)

4 reactors with iRTC

individual Reactor Temperature Control
max. 550°C (<0.5°C reactor-to-reactor)

Temperature Ranges (°C)

100 – 800°C
up 925°C (Option)

50 – 525°C
100 – 800°C
up 925°C (Option)

50 – 550°C

50 – 550°C

Reactor Types

L= Length
OD= Outer Diameter
ID= Inner Diameter
SS= Stainless Steel (< 550⁰C)
Qz= Quartz (< 925⁰C)

L 300 mm 561 mm
OD 3 mm 6 mm
ID SS 2 / 2.6 mm 2 / 3 / 4 / 5 mm
ID Qz 2 mm 2 / 4 mm
300 mm 561 mm 561 mm
3 mm 3 mm 6 mm
2 / 2.6 mm 2 / 2.6 mm 2 / 3 / 4 / 5 mm
2 mm 2 mm 2 / 4 mm
561 mm
3 mm
2 / 2.6 mm
2 mm
561 mm
3 mm
2 / 2.6 mm
2 mm

Maximum Catalyst Bed Length

(isothermal zone tolerance ± 1°C)
Note: isothermal length is dependent on the temperature range

300 / 3 HT 561 / 6 HT
>120 mm @ 450°C >200 mm @ 500°C
>90 mm @ 800°C >150 mm @ 800°C
>140 mm @ 925°C
300 / 3 HT 561 / 3 MT 561 / 6 HT
>120 mm @ 450°C >310 mm @ 450°C >200 mm @ 500°C
>90 mm @ 800°C >150 mm @ 800°C
>140 mm @ 925°C
561 / 3 MT iRTC
250°C ±0.5°C 41cm (4reactors)
350°C±0.5°C 38cm (4reactors)
550°C±0.5°C 28cm (4reactors)
3 reactors at 550°C, 1 reactor 350°C:
550°C=27cm 350°C=41cm ±0.5°C
561 / 3 MT iRTC
250°C ±0.5°C 41cm (4reactors)
350°C±0.5°C 38cm (4reactors)
550°C±0.5°C 28cm (4reactors)
3 reactors at 550°C, 1 reactor 350°C:
550°C=27cm 350°C=41cm ±0.5°C

Catalyst Volume (mL)

(isothermal zone)

0.2 - 0.6 mL 0.4 - 2.0 mL
0.2 - 0.6 mL 0.4 - 1.0 mL 0.4 - 2.0 mL
0.4 - 1.0 mL
0.4 - 1.0 mL

Pressure Ranges (barg)

2 – 80 barg
0.5 – 180 barg (option)

2 – 100 barg
0.5 – 180 barg

2 – 80 barg
0.5 – 180 barg

2 – 20 barg
2 – 50 barg (option)

Reactor Pressure Control

Advanced control RSD ±0.1 barg at reference conditions (gas phase only and 20 barg). For trickle flow Advanced control RSD ±0.5barg.

Standard (±0.5 barg)
Advanced (±0.1 barg) (option)

Standard (±0.5 barg)
Advanced (±0.1 barg) (option)

Advanced (±0.1 barg)

Advanced (±0.1 barg)

Gas Feed Lines

(#Gas Feeds)

Up to 6 + Diluent gas

He, Ar, N2, H2, CH4, CO2, C2H4, C2H6, O2/Inert (≤5%), CO, Other gases

Up to 7 + Diluent gas

He, Ar, N2, H2, CH4, CO2, C2H4, C2H6, O2/Inert (≤5%), CO, Other gases

Up to 7 + Diluent gas

He, Ar, N2, H2, CH4, CO2, C2H4, C2H6, O2/Inert (≤5%), CO, Other gases

Up to 6 + Diluent gas

He, Ar, N2, H2, CH4, CO2, C2H4, C2H6, O2/Inert (≤5%), CO, Other gases

Online Analysis

Full integration GC, MS , GC/MS with data visualisation (option)

Full integration GC, MS , GC/MS with data visualisation

Full integration GC, MS , GC/MS with data visualisation

Full integration GC, MS , GC/MS with data visualisation

Liquid Feed

 Split feeding 8 + 8 reators (option)

Pump-Coriolis dosing system
(ambient, cooled)

Pump-Coriolis dosing system
(ambient, cooled, heated 80°C)

Pump-Coriolis dosing system
(ambient, cooled, heated 80°C)

Pump-Coriolis dosing system
(ambient, cooled, heated 80°C)

Liquid Distribution

Microfluidic Distribution
(4-channel glass-chip)

Microfluidics Distribution
(4x4-channel glass-chip)
(16-channel glass-chip)
Active Liquid Distribution (option)
(with automatic isolation valves)

Active Liquid Distribution
(with automatic isolation valves)

Microfluidic Distribution
(4-channel glass-chip)

Liquid Sampling

(G/L Separation)

Parallel liquid sampling (4 x 20ml vials) with sequential on-line gas phase sampling (option)

Automated liquid sampling (4 rows x 16 vials x 8ml) with sequential on-line gas phase sampling (option)

Automated liquid sampling (4 rows x 16 vials x 8ml) with sequential on-line gas phase sampling (option)

Parallel liquid sampling (4 x 20ml vials) with sequential on-line gas phase sampling (option)

Reactors Effluent Handling

(Off-line Analysis Connection)

Full heated circuit up to 180°C with sequential on-line full gas phase sampling (option)

Full heated circuit up to 200°C with sequential on-line full gas phase sampling

Full heated circuit up to 200°C with sequential on-line full gas phase sampling

Full heated circuit up to 200°C with sequential on-line full gas phase sampling

Offline Analysis

Integrated Workflow: SimDist, total S/N, liquid density, balance, label printer, barcode (option)

Integrated Workflow: SimDist, total S/N, liquid density, balance, label printer, barcode

Integrated Workflow: SimDist, total S/N, liquid density, balance, label printer, barcode

Integrated Workflow: SimDist, total S/N, liquid density, balance, label printer, barcode

Waste Handling

Ambient temperature
Heated wax trapping (option)

Ambient temperature / Cooled containers / Heated compartment (wax trapping, heavies)

Ambient temperature / Cooled containers / Heated compartment (wax trapping, heavies)

Ambient temperature / Cooled containers / Heated compartment (wax trapping, heavies)

Safety

Gas sensors and control box (CO, LEL, VOC)

Gas sensors and control box (CO, LEL, VOC)

Gas sensors and control box (CO, LEL, VOC)

Gas sensors and control box (CO, LEL, VOC)

Flowrence® Software

Flowrence® recipe builder, control & database builder

Flowrence® recipe builder, control & database builder

Flowrence® recipe builder, control & database builder

Flowrence® recipe builder, control & database builder

Microfluidics modular gas distribution

Unrivalled accuracy in gas distribution with patented glass-chips for 4 and 16 reactors, with a guaranteed flow distribution of 0.5% RSD. Quick exchange of glass-chips for different operating conditions. Flexibility to cover a wide range of applications.

TinyPressure glass-chip holder with integrated pressure measurement

Compact modular design for gas and liquid distribution. No high-temperature pressure sensors required. Quick exchange of the microfluidic glass-chips, without the need for time-consuming leak testing.

Tube-in-tube reactor technology with effluent dilution

Unique tube-in-tube design with easy and rapid exchange of the reactor tubes (within minutes!). No need for any connections. Use of inert diluent gas (outside of reactor) to maintain the pressure prevents dead volumes and back flow. Possibility to use quartz reactors at high pressure applications.

Automated liquid sampling system

Programmable, fully automated liquid product sampling robot for 24/7 hands-off operation. Robot equipped with a compact manifold aiming at depressurizing the effluent immediately after each reactor to atmospheric pressure. Eliminates the use of high pressure valves.

Reactor Pressure Control (RPC)

The most accurate and stable pressure regulator for a 16-parallel reactors with just ±0.1bar RSD. The RPC uses microfluidics technology to regulate the pressure of each reactor, maintaining equal distribution of the inlet flow over the 16 reactors.

Auto-calibrating liquid feed distribution, measurement, and control

Distribution of difficult feedstocks e.g., VGO, HVGO, DAO. Liquid distribution 0.2% RSD, making it the most accurate liquid distribution device on the market. Option to selectively isolate each reactor.

Single-Pellet-String-Reactors (SPSR)

No dead-zones, no bed packing & distribution effects. The catalyst packing is straightforward and does not require special procedures. A single string of catalyst particles is loaded in the reactors avoiding maldistribution, eliminating channeling and incomplete wetting.

EasyLoad®

Unique reactor closing system with no connections. Rapid reactor replacement minimizing delays, improving uptime and reliability. Stable evaporation by liquid injection into reactor.

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